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Elsie Moren, a Minnesota native, died a nationless woman after her citizenship was revoked following her marriage to a Swedish immigrant. The Senate is considering a resolution apologizing to the thousands of women in the early 20th century that lost their citizenship due to the Expatriation Act of 1907. Submitted photo.

Justice for Elsie: Lake County woman to receive posthumous apology

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Last year, the Lake County News-Chronicle told the story of Elsie Moren, a woman whose marriage to an immigrant in the early part of the last century resulted in the loss of her rights. Now, decades later, the United States Senate is pondering a resolution apologizing to the Two Harbors woman and her many contemporaries.


Moren, a native Minnesotan, lost her citizenship thanks to a little-known act passed by the U.S. government in the early 1900s. The law rendered any woman who married a foreign-born man a non-citizen, regardless of where she was born. When her grandson, Minneapolis man Daniel Swalm, found out about the act and its consequences, he made it his personal mission to get an official apology for his grandmother.

Just last week, fifteen months after he began his quest, Swalm declared victory. Sens. Al Franken and Ron Johnson, a democrat from Minnesota and a republican from Wisconsin, introduced a resolution in the Senate apologizing to the women affected by the Expatriation Act of 1907.

“My resolution helps right a wrong that many have forgotten. This tragic law was repealed decades ago, but it’s part of a struggle for equality that continues today. These women were punished for marrying who they loved, and that’s fundamentally wrong,” Sen. Franken told the News-Chronicle.

Swalm said he is ecstatic. 

He had his first meeting with Franken staffers in January of 2013, and he said he was ready to give up after more than a year without progress.

“I never thought that it would go anywhere,” he said. “I fully expected them to dismiss me as a goofy crank.”

But they didn’t, and Swalm got an email in mid-March from Franken staffers advising him that something was in the works. The resolution is now awaiting approval from the full Senate.

Bigger than Elsie

Elsie Moren was born on the Iron Range and married a legal Swedish immigrant in 1914. She moved to Two Harbors with her new husband and lived on 11th Avenue until her early death in 1926 from childbirth complications. She died a non-citizen in her home country.

Candice Bredbenner, an associate professor at the University of North Carolina- Wilmington, estimates that tens of thousands of women were affected by the Expatriation Act of 1907. She wrote a book about the act, “A Nationality of Her Own.”

“These are just your average women. They found themselves unexpectedly in a situation in which they were suddenly told that they were unpatriotic, disloyal … simply for marrying someone that wasn’t a citizen,” said Bredbenner.

The act was retroactive, meaning that women who married immigrants before the law existed also lost their citizenship. Swalm said Franken’s staffers were surprised by the magnitude of the problem.

“They took it seriously,” he said. “They looked at the issue and saw that there was a bigger picture than just Grandma Elsie.”

Swalm found out about Elsie’s legal status while researching his genealogy. He found Elsie’s alien registration form and started researching why his grandmother, born in Minnesota, was required to fill out a form for immigrants.

His search led him to Bredbenner, the only scholar who has extensively researched the Expatriation Act. She has been sought out by many people like Swalm who have discovered this oddity in their family histories.

“People are shocked that the government would have taken away a native born’s citizenship and (they don’t) realize how far the anti-immigrant sentiment went in that period,” Bredbenner said.

After Swalm shared his story with media outlets, including the News-Chronicle and Pioneer Press, at least two other people contacted him with similar stories. A man in New Richmond, Wis., discovered that his grandmother Theresa Schwan lost her citizenship after marrying a German man. When Sen. Johnson heard his story, he joined Franken to put forward the resolution.

A belated apology

Although parts of the Expatriation Act were repealed in 1922 and it was completely thrown out in 1940, its 30-years on the books damaged thousands of families.

The resolution introduced by Sens. Franken and Johnson names a South Dakota woman who was nearly deported after World War I, a New York woman who lost her teaching job and a California woman who wasn’t allowed to vote even after women gained the right — all results of marrying a foreign national.

Though the resolution can’t right the wrongs those women experienced, Bredbenner said, it’s still a worthy cause.

“I’m sure that the efforts of Swalm really made a difference. I think it’s always worth making a statement like this, even though it’s too late to change the circumstances,” she said.

For Swalm, it’s finally some recognition for his grandma, who wasn’t permitted to vote even after women gained the right in 1920 and died a woman without a nation.

“It goes to show what one person can do if you’re determined and you have an issue that resonates with people,” Swalm said.

LaReesa Sandretsky
LaReesa Sandretsky is a Two Harbors High School graduate and Duluth native that began working at the News-Chronicle in 2012 as a reporter. She took over as editor in 2014. She covers County Board, including the Lake County broadband project.
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